Posted on

Cultivation Codes and sowing conditions and times

Temperature for optimum germination: night minimum to day maximum:

  1. 60’s to mid 70’s F (approx. 17 to low 20’s C)
  2. 60’s to mid 80’s F (approx. 17 to upper 20’s C)
  3. 70’s to mid 80’s F (approx. 20 to low 30’s C)
  4. 60’s to near 105F (approx. 17 to near 40 C)
  5. 70’s to near 100F (approx. 20 to upper 30’s C)
    Time to plant seeds:
  6. any time of year with proper temperatures and day length (ca.13-14 hours); you can extend day length with artificial lights.
  7. fall and winter are best time, avoid heat of summer, short day length (ca. 11 hours)
    Special notes:
  8. remove from closed humid atmosphere soon after germination (ca.3 days)
  9. slow to germinate, scarification and stratification help, freeze and thaw both wet and dry. Don’t keep wet, but alternate wet and dry with changing temperature. No luck? Save pot and try again next year.
  10. closed humid atmosphere important, distilled water useful with tiny seeds.
  11. rot easily, right after germination: not too wet, dry air and stronger light.
  12. soak in warm (approx. 80F, 27C) distilled water about 12 hours before planting the seeds; do not allow to dry between soaking and planting.
  13. needs soil with basic pH when first transplanted (add limestone), especially in areas with acidic water.
    Hardiness of strong seedlings or adults in good health and culture:
  14. no frost at all, fatal, keep above approx. 40F (approx. 5C)
  15. occasional light frost, above 28F (-2C)
  16. frequent moderate frost, above approx. 20F (-7C)
  17. very frost hardy, above approx. 10F (-12C)
  18. often snow-covered, safe easily to -10F (-23C)



Cultivation codes for mesembs and some other succulents: (germination temps)
A-robust shrubby spring growers that grow rapidly and flower in the spring. When the heat of summer comes they go dormant. Some will grow only as annuals and die in the summer heat (50-65F, 10-18C)
B-spring growers that stay compact, actively grow and flower in the spring, needing deep soaking waterings. They can be cool to cold and dry in the dead of winter. (60-75F, 16-25C)
C-grows in the fall and winter when cool with short days. They like frequent light waterings and lots of mist, mosts come from regions with fog appearing at night. They go dormant in late spring when hot conditions arrive. During the heat of summer often shade is very helpful. Very little water given all summer long. (50-65F, 10-18C)
D-opportunistic, will grow anytime from fall to spring when moisture is given. Grow and water them when you have periods of sunshine, and they go dormant in the heat of summer when less water is needed. (60-75F, 16-25C)


Acanthocalycium, /3,6,15-17/ globose, from N. Argentina
Acanthocereus, /14/ low bushes, ribbed stems
Acanthosicyos, /2,6,14/ zigzag stem, spiny fruit
Acrodon, /B,15/ matforming with slender leaves
Adansonia, /4,6,14/ tree type caudiciforms
Adenia, /3,6,8,14/ thick stem caudiform, summer grower
Adenium, /3,6,8,14/ caudiciform, winter deciduous leaves
Adromischus, /1,7,15/ tiny rosette forming plants, slow
Aeonium, /1,7,15/ rosette forming, full sun
Aethephyllum, /1/ spring flowering annuals, sow in cool of spring
Agave, /3,6,8/ century plant, good for summer patio
Aichryson, /1,6,10/ small delicate rosettes
Akersia, /14/ slender cerioid from Peru
Albuca, /15/ most are winter growing bulbs
Allium, most hardy rock garden subjects, summer flowers
Alluadia, /3,6,14/ upright thorny shrubs, Madagascar
Aloe, /2,6,1416/ very large diverse genus
Aloinopsis, /B,1718/ low matforming plants
Anacampseros, /1,6,8,10/ small plants, need full sun
Ancistrocactus, /3,6,8,11,13/ globose, from USA & Mexico
Antegibbaeum, /D,15/ thick fingerlike leaves
Antimima, /C,15/ minute shrubs, sheathing
Apodanthera /4,6,14/, Mexican cucurbits
Aporocactus, /2,6,14/ slender hanging stems, big red flowers
Aptenia, /A/ low freelybranching shrubs, glossy leaves
Arenifera, /D,14/ wonderful low shrub
Arequipa, /15-17/ spiny small plants from Peru & Chile
Argyroderma, /C,15/ thick leaves, flowers when small
Aridaria, /D,15/ shrub with soft fleshy deciduous leaves
Ariocarpus, /3,6,8,13/ slow grower, interesting plants
Armatocereus, /3,6,14/ cereoids from Ecuador & Peru
Arrojadoa, /3,6,14/ slender columnar plants from Brazil
Asclepias, /3,6/
Astridia, /D,15/ thickleaved shrub, full sun
Astroloba, /2,6,14/ rosettes with rigid sharp leaves
Astrophytum, /3,6,8,11,13/ small plants, colorful flowers
Austrocactus, /2,6,17-18/ from southern Argentina
Austrocephalocereus, /3,6,14/ wooly columnar sorts from Brazil
Austrocylindropuntia, /14-16/ with cylindric joints
Avonia /1,6,8,10/, scaley stems, often tuberous
Aztekium, /3,6,10,13,14/ tiny & slow growing, from Mexico
Azureocereus, /14/ cereoides from highlands of Peru
Beaucarnea, /3,6,14/ trees with rosetteforming leaves
Bergeranthus, /B,15/ tufts of short leaves
Bergerocactus, /3,15/ slender upright stems, on coastal hills
Beschorneria /3,6,14/, soft fleshy rosettes, Agave family
Bijlia, /D,15/ low matforming with yellow flowers
Blossfeldia, /2,6,10,14/ miniature plants
Bolivicereus, /3,14/ slender cascading stems for hanging basket
Bombax, /3,6,14/ caudex with big leaves in summer
Borzicactus, /3,6,14/ columnar types from Peru
Boswellia /5,6,14/, frankincense tree, aromat
Bowiea, /2,6,14/ succulent blob with deciduous vine
Braunsia, /D,15/ matforming plants, tufted leaves
Brownanthus, /D,14/ bizarre shrublet, avoid root heat
Browningia, /3,6,14/ cereoid from Peru, spineless trunk
Buiningia, /3,6,14/ short thick stem, cephalium on side
Bulbine, /C,7,14/ succulent leaves, most caudex forming
Bulbinella, /C,14/ winter growing bulb, good for pot culture
Bulbinopsis, /1,7,14/ fallwinter growing bulbs
Bursera, /3,6,14/ caudex forming shrubs, papery bark
Caesalpina /3,6/, small bush, heat and drought lover
Calandrina, /1,6,15-17/ small shrubs, mtns N&S America
Calibanus, /15/ thick dumplingesque caudes
Calochortus, /17-18/ cool moist spring, hot dry summer
Calymmanthium, /3,6,14/ many branched trees, n Peru
Caralluma, /3,6,8,14/ stems with teeth
Carnegiea, /3,6,15/ Saguaro from Sonoran Desert
Carpanthea, /A/ annuals, loves water, beautiful flowers
Carpobrotus, /A,16/ low creeping plants, large fl
Carruanthus, /B,15/ compact plants with low thick leaves
Cephalocereus, /3,6,14/ columnar, from Mexico & Caribbean
Cephalopentandra /5/14/, huge caudex, summer vine
Cephalophyllum, /D,15/ large colorful flowers
Ceraria, /1,7,14/ compact, with tuberous roots
Cereus, /3,6,14-15/ South American cereiods, large nocturnal flowers
Cerochlamys, /D,15/ low thick leaves coated with wax
Ceropegia, /3,6,14/ underground tuber, trailing deciduous vine
Chasmatophyllum, /B,17-18/ low thick knobby leaves, compact
Cheiridopsis, /C,1516/ small, many dots on leaves
Chiastophyllum, /1,6,10,18/ low, branched open rosettes
Chilopsis, /3,6,17/ small desert tree, freely flowering
Chorisia, /3,6,14/ tropical trees, thick thorny trunks
Cissus /3,6,14/, thick roots with vines
Cistanthe, /2,6,1415/ thick stem with Echeverialike rosettes
Cleistocactus, /3,6,14-16/ columnar with pretty spines
Cleretum, /1/ glistening annuals, faster than rabbits
Clistanthocereus, /3,14/ Peruvian shrubby cereoid, tuberculate stems
Coleocephalocereus, /3,14/ short columnar Brazilians, cephalium
Commiphora, /4,6,12,14/ thick truncked bonsai shrub
Conicosia, /1,7,C/ very thirsty sand dwellers
Conophytum, /C,14-16/ dwarf succulent bodies, variable and charming
Consolea, /3,6,14/ tropical prickly pear, odd flowers
Copiapoa, /3,6,14/ globose plants from deserts of Chile
Corpuscularia, /B,2,6,15/ low creepers
Corrallocarpus, /3,6,14/ cucurbit, tuberous caudex
Corryocactus, /15-16/ short columnar spiny stem
Coryphantha, /3,6,8/ colorful flowers, from USA & Mexico
Cotyledon, /1,6,10/ give full sun when mature
Crassula, /1,7,10/ very large diverse genus
Cryptostegia, /5,6,14/ rubbery tropical vines
Cucurbita /3,6/ underground caudex, summer grower
Cumarinia, /3,6,13,15/ very small plant from Mexico
Cyclamen, /1,6/ cool rock garden types, sow in early spring
Cylindrophyllum, /D,15/ offsets, thick cylindric leaves
Cynanchum, /14/ short branching vines
Cyphostemma, /4,6,12,14/ thick caudex, deciduous leaves
Dactylopsis, /C,14/ very fat soft leaves, clay soils
Dasylirion, /3,6/ thick stem rosette with thorny teeth
Delosperma, /A,14-18/ good outdoor plants for the summer
Delphinium /2,6/
Dendrocereus, /3,6,14/ treelike cereiod from Cuba
Dendrosycios /5,14/, huge upright caudex
Denmoza, /3,6,15-16/ short thick columnar types, Argentina
Dicrocaulon, /C,14/ grow like Monilaria
Didymaotus, /D,15/ low thick cleft bodies, whitegrey
Dinteranthus, /D,10,15/ very thick low plants, rocklike
Dioscorea /3,14/, deciduous vine from squat caudex
Dipcade, /C,14/ bulbs, often hairy leaves, scented fl
Diplosoma, /C,14/ disappears from surface when dormant
Discocactus, /3,6,8,14/ cephalium bearing, fragrant fl
Disphyma, /A,15/ mat forming, flowers appear on long stalk
Dorotheanthus, /A/ short lived annuals, bright flowers
Dorstenia, /3,6,14/ low squat thick base, deciduous leaves
Dracaena, /3,6,14/ evergreen palmlike tree
Dracophilus, /D,15/ low thick leaves, full sun
Drimopsis, /C,14/ winter growing bulbs
Drosanthemopsis, /D14/ very soft reddish leaves
Drosanthemum, /A,15-16/ low shrubbies, erect or limp
Dudleya, /1,6,10/ rosette forming, winter growing
Duvalia, /3,6,8,14/ short thick stem, mat forming
Duvaliandra, /14/ thick rocklike stems
Dyckia, /2,6/ rosette forming, with thorny leaves
Eberlanzia, /D,15/ low shrubby, long woody thorns
Ebracteola, /D,15/ dwarf clumping plants, thick roots
Echeveria, /1,6,10,14-16/ colorful leaves and flowers
Echinocactus, /6/ barrel cacti, from Mexico & USA
Echinocereus, /2,6,8/ large diverse genus, super flowers
Echinofossulocactus, /2,6,15-16/ wavy ribs, from Mexico
Echinomastus, /3,6,8,11/ dense spines, Mexico & USA
Echinopsis, /3,6,14-17/ large nocturnal flowers
Energanthe, /D,15/ low shrub, thick leaves, full sun
Epicactus, /3,6,14/ intergeneric hybrids, various flower colors
Epiphyllum, /3,6,14/ tropical epiphytic cacti, grow as orchids
Epithelantha, /3,6,8,11,13,16/ tiny plants
Eranthus, rock garden bulbs, likes cool moist spring
Erdisia, /3,6,14,15/ slender stems, thick underground root
Eremurus, /17-18/ tall spikes, cool wet spring, hot summer
Erepsia, /A,15/ low shrubby types, most purple fl
Eriocereus, /3,6,15/ slender stem, large nocturnal fl
Eriosyce, /5,6,11/ best spines of any cactus, Chile
Erythrina, /4,6,9,16/ low shrubs, broad showy leaves
Escobaria, /3,6,8,15-18/ small spiny plants (Neobesseya)
Escontria, /3,6,14/ cereoid from Mexico
Espostoa, /14,15/ wooly columnar plants, Peru
Esterhuysenia /C,1,16/, smooth shiny leaves, shrublet
Eucomis, /2,6,16/ summer bulb with whorl of leaves
Eulychnia, /14/ low spiny bushes, Chile, full sun
Euphorbia, /3,6,8,11/ interesting diverse genus
Faucaria, /B,15-16/ low thick leaves with teeth
Fenestraria, /D,14/ tiny, clustering, transparent windows
Feroburgia, /3,6,8/Ferocactus x Leuctenbergia
Ferocactus, /3,6,8/ colored spines, likes full sun
Ferraria, /C,14/ winter growing bulbs
Ficus, /3,6,14/ bonsai type tree
Fockea, /3,6,8,14/ caudex with vine, summer grower
Fouquieria, /3,6,8,14-17/ stem succulent, deciduous leaves
Frailea, /2,6,8,14/ very small plants, colorful
Frithia, /B,15/ matforming, windows on leaf tip
Fritillaria, /1718/ rock garden types, moist spring
Furcraea /3,6,14/, rosette forming, fl with bulbils
Gasteria, /2,6,14/ rosette forming, thick tough leaves
Geissorhiza, /1,7,14-15,C/ winter growers, multicolored flowers
Geohintonia, /3,6,10,15/ rocklike, with wavy ribs
Gerrardanthus, /5,6,14/ summer growers, vine from caudex
Gibbaeum, /D,14/ small thickleaved plants, keep dry
Gladiolus, virtually all are winter growers
Glandulicactus, /3,6,8,11,13,16-17/ bluish body, hooked sp
Glottiphyllum, /D,15/ thick compact leaves, keep dry
Gonolobus, /3,6,14/ super caudex
Grahamia, /2,6,15-16/ low shrubby, round leaves, tuberous roots
Graptopetalum, /1,6,10/ smooth leaves, spotted petals
Greenovia, /1,6/ small rosettes that dry into cup in summer
Grusonia, /4,6,9,12,16/ thick ribbed stem, Mexico
Gymnocactus, /3,6,8,13,16/ densely spined, Mexico
Gymnocalycium, /3,6/ nice spines, freely flowering
Gymnocereus, /3,6,14/ treelike, from Peru
Haageocereus, /14/ short spiny columnar stem, full sun
Haemanthus /C,14-15/, large thick winter growing bulbs
Hallianthus, /D,15/ delicate descending stems, tiny leaf
Hamatocactus, /3,6,15-17/ quick growers, colorful flowers
Harrisia, /14/ slender stsems which climb or hang
Hartmanthus /D,2,14/, little shrublet, easy to flower
Hasseanthus, /1,7/ deciduous Dudleya relative
Hatiora, /14/ tropical epiphytes
Haworthia, /7,14-15/ rosettes, sow at 50, 70F
Hechtia, /3,6/ rosetteforming, colorful teethed leaves
Heliabravoae, /3,6,14/ columnar cereoid from Mexico
Hereroa, /B,16-18/ matforming with deep roots
Herreanthus, /D,15/ compact low thick leaves, slow
Hesperaloe, /3,6/ rosettes of long thin frayed leaves
Hildewintera, /3,6,14/ cliff hangers, large flowers
Hoodia, /3,6,8,14/ erect stem, saucershaped flowers
Huernia, /3,6/ short thick stems, variable flowers
Hydnophytum, /3,6,14/ tropical epiphytic caudex
Hylocereus, /3,6,14/ epiphytic climbers, huge nocturnal fl
Ibervillea, /3,6,8,14/ caudex with trailing vine
Imitaria, /D,15/ very small rounded bodies, mat forming
Impatiens, /3,6,14/ summer growers, love heat + humidity
Ipomoea, /3,6,8,12/ underground caudex with deciduous vine
Iris, intricate flowers, sow seeds in late winter
Jacobsenia, /C,15/ erect, shiny beaded leaves
Jatropha, /4,6/ summer grower, leaves fall off in winter
Jensenobotrya, /D,14/ thick rounded leaves
Jordaaniella /D,14/, huge bright flowers, creepers
Juttadinteria, /D,15/ low growing, thick stonelike leaves
Kalanchoe, /1,6,10/ variable genus from Madagascar
Kedrostris, /3,6,14/ summer growing caudiciform, trailing vine
Kensitia, /C,15/ low & shrubby with sabreshaped leaves
Khadia, /B,15/ curved angled leaves
Kniphofia, /3,6,18/ underground bulb, rosette of leaves
Lachenalia, /C,14/ bulb with soft succulent leaves, dry in summer
Lampranthus, /A,14-16/ erect shrubbies, many flowers
Lapeirousia, /1,7,14/ winter bulbs, flat foliage, super flowers
Lapidaria, /D,15-17/ low with very thick curved leaves
Leipoldtia, /D,15/ low shrub with smooth leaves
Lemaireocereus, /3,6,14/ large cereoid from Mexico
Lenophyllum, /1,6,10,15-16/ rosette forming
Lepismium, /3,6,14/ epiphytic from east side Andes
Leuchtenbergia, /3,6,8,13,16/ long tubercles, deep taproot
Lewisia, /1,6,1617/ thick underground roots
Lilium, /2,6/ bulbs with upright stem, trumpet flowers
Lithops, /most B,14-17/ flat plants, colorful top
Lobivia, /2,6,15-17/ small with very colorful flowers
Lomatium, /2,6/ spring growing caudiciform
Lomatophyllum, /3,6,14/ rosette of fleshy leaves
Lophocereus, /14/ Mexican  US cereiod
Lophophora, /3,6,8,13,14-16/ low plants, thick taproot
Loxanthocereus, /3,6,14/ slender clustering stem, Peru
Machaerocereus, /3,6,14/ cereoids with slender stem
Machairophyllum, /B,15/ matforming with crowded leaves
Maihueniopsis, /3,6,12,16-17/ mound forming
Malephora, /D,15-17/ thick leaved, names a mess
Mammillaria, /6/ large diverse genus, most freeflowering
Mandragora, /3,6,17/ small desert herbs
Manfreda, /3,6,15-16/ soft spotted leaves, fragrant fl
Manihot, /4,6,14/ attractive palmate leaves
Marah, /1,7,14/
Marlothistella, /B,15/ dense tuft of erect thin leaves
Marsdenia, /3,6,14/ vining deciduous tropicals
Massonia /C,14-15/, winter growing bulbs, flat leaves
Matelea, /4,6,14/ tropical shrubs, very wet in summer
Matucana, /3,6,14-15/ nice flowers, from Peru
Maughaniella, /C,14/ disappears from view when dormant
Mauhuenia, /3,6,12,16-17/ clustering mat forming plants, high Andes
Melocactus, /3,6,14/ strong spines, cephalium when mature
Merendera, /1,6,18/ miniature early spring bulbs
Merremia, /5,6,14/ morning glory relative
Mesembryanthemum, /C,14/ winter growing annual
Mestoklema, /b,15/ low shrub, thick underground taproot
Meyerophytum, /C,14/ very tiny leaves, branches freely
Micranthocereus, /3,6,14/ slender spiny stem, numerous fl
Micropterum, /A/ short lived annuals, shiny leaves
Mila, /3,6,14/ slender stems with bristly spines, Peru
Mirabilis /3,6,14/, fouroclocks, tubular flowers
Mitrophyllum, /C,14/ leaves burst out of papery sheath
Mix, full cactussucculent assortment
Momordica, /3,6,14/ caudiciform cucurbit
Monadenium /3,6,8,14/, with interesting leaves
Monanthes, /1,6,10,15/ densely caespitose tiny plants
Monilaria, /C,15/ brilliant leaves (water storage cells)
Monvillea, /2/ slender columnar plants, nocturnal flowers
Morangaya, /3,6,14/ slender stem, huge red flowers
Morawetzia, /15/ columnar sort from Peru, wooly
Moreae, Mexican spring bulbs, very pretty flowers
Moringa /3,6,17/, fat trunked caudex, summer grower
Mossia, /B,14/
Muiria, /D,14/ thick rounded bodies curved to one side
Muscari, /18/ spring flowering bulbs, very cold hardy
Myrtillocactus, /3,6,14/ treelike cereoides from Mexico
Namaquanthus, /D,14/ low erect shrubby, thick leaves
Namibia, /D,14/ clumpforming with very thick soft leaves
Nananthus, /B,18/ low compact tufted plants
Nelia, /D,14/ short thick leaves, clump forming]
Neobinghamia, /3,6,14/ short columnar type from Peru, very spiny
Neobuxbaumia, /3,6,14/ columnar, spiny plants from Mexico
Neocardenasia, /3,6,14/ large columnar sorts, need full sun
Neoevansia, /3,6,15/ slender stems, thick tubers
Neohenricia, /B,18/ tiny low matforming plant
Neolloydia, /3,6,13/ small, brightly colored flowers
Neoporteria, /3,6,14/ variable low small plants, Chile
Neoraimondia, /3,6,14/ treelike cereiods from Peru
Neowerdermannia, /2,6,15/ flat stem, thick taproot
Nolina, /3,6,8/ succulent trunk with slender leaves
Nopalea, /3,14/ bushy subtropical types, long thin pads
Notocactus, /2,6,15-17/ bright yellow to red flowers
Nycteranthus, /B,15/ robust shrubbies,with large flowers
Nyctocereus, /3/6/14/ thin stemmed, large white nocturnal fl
Obregonia, /3,6,13,14/ flat stem from Mexico
Octopoma, /D,14/ short fat leaves, small shrubby
Odontophorus, /D,14/ dwarf, thick toothy leaves, full sun
Oophytum, /C,14/ clusters of tiny shiny leaves
Ophthalmophyllum, /C,15/ tiny sphaeric glassy leaves
Opophytum, /A/ winter growing annuals, water sacks
Opuntia, /4,6,9,12/ very diverse genus
Orbea, /3,6/ flower with raised annulus
Orbeopsis, /3,6/
Oreocereus, /1516/ showy short columnar, long hairs
Ornithogalum, /14-18/ flowers in a spike, slender leaves
Orostachys, /1,6,10,17/ compact rosettes, rock garden type
Oroya, /2,6,16-17/ small globose stem, Peru
Ortegocactus, /3,6,8,14/
Orthopterum, /B,14/ matforming, thick recurved leaves
Oscularia, /A,15/ low branching shrubby, teethed leaf
Othonna, /C,7,14/ succulent daisy, 4050F (510C)
Ottosonderia /1,7/
Oxalis, /2,6,14/ small fleshy bushy succulents
Pachycereus, /3,6,14/ huge treelike cereoids from Mexico
Pachycormus, /3,6,14/ low tree with thick trunk
Pachyphytum, /1,6,10/ thick powdery leaves, open rosette
Pachypodium, /3,6,8,14/ thick stem, deciduous leaves
Parodia, /1,6,10,14-17/ most small, dense spines
Pedilanthus, /5,14/ rubbery stems, small bushes
Pediocactus, /4,6,9,17-18/ small plants, all cold hardy
Pelargonium, /C,7,14/ sow at 4050F (510C)
Pelecyphora, /3,6,14/ low very slow plants, interesting
Peniocereus, /3,6,11/ thin stem, huge underground tubers
Peperomia, /3,6,14/ small caudex hides in rock cracks
Pereskia, /4,6,14/ tropical bushes
Pereskiopsis, /3,14/ scrambling bushes, with leaves
Pfeiffera, /14/ slender, short stem, epiphytic
Phemeranthus, (“Talinum”) /3,6,16-18/ cute clump of terete leaves
Pherolobus, /C/ sow early winter for spring flowers
Philippicereus, /14/ short columnar sorts from Chile
Phyllobolus, /D,14-15/ ephermal leaves, caudex
Pilosocereus, /3,6,14/ wooly columnar ceroides
Plectranthus, /3,6,14/ succulents mints, tropical
Pleiospilos, /most B, 16-17/ low thick leaves, full sun
Poellnitzia, /2,6,14/
Polaskia, /3,14/ cereiodes from Mexico
Polymita, /D,15/ thick leaved shrubby, densely branched
Portulaca /2,6/, small succulents, bright flowers
Prenia, /A,14/ low creeping shrub
Probiscidea, /3,6,14-17/ devils claw, fruit with 2 long hooks
Psammophora, /D,15/ low thick sticky leaves
Pseudolithos, /3,6,14/ resembling rocks, loves heat
Psilocaulon, /D,14/ sticklike shrublettes
Pterocactus, /16-18/ tuberous roots
Pterodiscus, /3,6,8,14/ underground caudex
Puna, /3,6,16/ deep taproot, tiny rounded stems
Puya, /3,6/ fibrous coarse rosette with teethed margin
Pygmaeocereus, /14/ tiny globose stem, thick taproot, Peru
Pyrenacantha, /4,6,12,14/ tropical caudex
Pyrrhocactus, /2,6,8,15-16/ low thick stem, stout spines
Quaqua, /14/ stiff rigid stems
Rabiea, /B,18/ thick roots and very thick leaves
Raphionacme, /3,6,8,14/ fleshy underground caudex
Rathbunia, /3,6,14/ scramblers from western Mexico
Rauhea, /3,6,15/ summer growing bulbs
Rauheocereus, /3,14/ Peruvian cereoid, raised flat tubercles
Rebutia, /2,6,15-17/ (incl Aylostera & Mediolobivia)
Rhinephyllum, /B,17/ low compact plants, nocturnal fl
Rhipsalidopsis, /3,6,14/ small epiphytes, many flowers
Rhipsalis, /3,14/ epiphytic, needs warmth & humidity
Rhodiola, /1,6,10,16-18/ rock garden plants
Rhodocactus /3,6,14/, subtropical shrubs and scramblers
Rhombophyllum, /B,15-17/ matforming, hatchet
Roseocereus, /14/ columnar from Bolivia, colorful
Rosularia, /18/ mat forming rosettes, rock garden type
Ruschia, overlarge diverse genus
Ruschianthus, /D,15/ inward curving sabreshaped leaves
Sansevieria, /3,6/ stemless plants with tough leathery leaves
Sarcocaulon, /1,7,14/ winter growing, sow in late autumn
Sarcostemma, /3,6,14/ thin leafless vines
Sceletium, /D,15/ low shrubby type with papery leaves
Schizobasis, /1,C,14/ winter growing bulb
Schlechteranthus, /D,14/ dwarf compact bush, loves sun
Schlumbergera, /3,14/ ‘Christmas Cactus’
Schwantesia, /D,15/ low thick leaves, freely flowering
Sclerocactus, /4,6,9,11,16-18/ colorful plants, spiny
Scopelogena, /B,14/ compact spreading shrub, fleshy leaves
Sedum, /1,6,10/ tiny succulents with tight leaves
Selenicereus, /3,6,14/ epiphytic with large nocturnal flowers
Semnanthe, /A,15/ leaf edge with fine teeth
Sempervivum, /1,6,10,17-18/ tight rosettes, alpines
Senecio, succulent composites
Sesamothamnus, /3,6,8,14/ swollen base, thorny branches
Seticereus, /14/ columnar, stems often hang
Sinningia, /2,6,8,10,14/ gesneriad
Sinocrassula, /1,6,10,18/ hairy leafed rosettes
Smicrostigma, /A/ shrubby summer grower
Sophora, /4,6,8,17/ small bushes, leathery leaves
Sphalmanthus, /D,15/ deciduous, die back when dormant
Stapelia, /3,6,8,14/ large flowers come summer/fall
Stayneria, /A,15/ erect shrub, large white fl
Steganaetenia, /3,14/
Stenocereus, /3,6,14/ Mexican cereiods
Stephanocereus, /3,6,14/ columnar sort from Brazil, ringcephalium
Stetsonia, /3,6,14/ very long black sp., Argentina
Stoeberia, /D,14/ spreading shrub, thick leaves
Stomatium, /B,1718/ low, scented nocturnal flowers
Strombocactus, /3,6,10,13,14/ low flat greygreen stem
Sulcorebutia, /3,6,14-15/ small, with colorful flowers
Sutherlandia, /3,6,15/ desert shrub, nice flowers
Tacitus, /1,6,10/ dense rosette of thin leaves
Talinopsis, /3,6/ low upright bush, deciduous
Talinum, /2,6,15-18/ rosette forming
Tamus, /3,15/ spring growing tuber with vine
Tanquana, /D,15/ fat rounded leaves, give full sun
Taveresia, /3,6/ densely bristled stem, long tubed flowers
Tecoma /3,6,16/ desert shrub, nice yellow flowers all summer
Tephrocactus, /4,9,12/ segmented stems, variable spination
Testudinaria, above ground fleshy caudex, trailing vine
Thelocactus, /3,6,8,13/ small, with brilliant flowers
Thompsoniella, /2,6,15/ thick roots, compact rosette
Thrixanthocereus, /14/ columnar, beautiful spination
Titanopsis, /B,17-18/ low thick warted leaves
Toumeya, /4,6,9,17/ tiny thin erect stem, papery sp
Tradescantia /2,6/, small rosette florming scramblers
Trichocaulon, /3,6,8,11,14/ thick soft stems
Trichocereus, /3,6,14-17/ columnar, large flowers
Trichodiadema, /B,15/ shrubby with thick roots
Tritonia, small pot type winter growers, dry in summer
Trycyclandra, /5,6,14/ fat caudex, summer vine
Tumamoca, /4,14/ summer grower, dies back in winter
Turbinicarpus, /3,6,8,13,14-15/ tiny plants from Mexico
Tylecodon, /1,7,10,C/ low thickstemmed caudiciforms
Uebelmannia, /3,6,14/ sharp ribs, very colorful, Brazil
Umbilicus, /1,6,10/ small open rosettes
Uncarina, /4,6,14/ small trees with swollen base, Madagascar
Vanheerdea, /D,17/ clumps slowly with very thick leaves
Vanzijlia, /C,15/ low winter growing shrubbies
Vatricania, /3,6,14/ columnar, cephalium bearing, Bolivia
Veltheimia, /1,7,14/ winter bulb, fat and squat
Villadia, /1516/ very tiny leafed rosette
Vlokia /1,6,17/, mat forming, on mountain rocks
Weberbauerocereus, /3,6,14-15/ densely spined columns, Peru
Weingartia, /3,6,15-17/ small stem, colorful fl
Welwitschia, /C,14/ likes deep sandy soil, frequent fog at night
Whitesloaniaa, /5,8,14/ fat cylindrical stem
Wooleya, /D,14/ very rare upright type
Xanthorrhoea, /3,6,14/ long slender leaves
Xeronema /3,14/, ridig very thick Irislike foliage
Xerosicyos, /3,6,14/ cucurbit, trailing vine
Yucca, /2,6/ makes very nice garden plant, white flowers
Zehneria, /5,6,14/ tropical cucurbit, tuberous roots


Pediocactus, Sclerocactus and Toumeya

With winter approaching in northern latitudes, the best time for sowing Pediocactus, Sclerocacus and Toumeya is here. In places with hard frosts in mid winter, you can sow the pots outdoors to give exposure to multiple freezing/thawing occasions. In habitat there will be more than 100 nights with subfreezing temps, while during the day the sun will warm the air to thaw the ground surface.

Then in most of these habitats there will be some rain or snow in the spring. Then in spring the ground will be cool and very damp. Many seeds will germinate in early spring under cool damp conditions, after the needed freezing/thawing cycles of mid winter.

In the summer often it is dry, occasionally there will be thunderstorms. The ground will experience very high surface temperatures, be mostly dry, but occasionally very wet when thunderstorms come frequently in short bursts.

If you live where sharp frosts occur in the winter, try to sow the seeds by the end of January if possible, so that enough freezing/thawing cycles can occur.

Summary of sowing method used here in New Mexico:

  1. sow in mid winter, keep mostly dry, occasionally wet, freeze at night and thaw in day
  2. damp in early spring when cool, occasional light frost, warmer in day. Keep evenly moist and germination will start.
  3. very hot in mid summer, mostly dry with occasional soaks. More germination will occur after thunderstorms soak the pots. Avoid prolonged soaking now.
  4. mostly dry in fall, occasional soak only. Allow to dry out for winter dormancy. Sometimes plants will bud in the fall, do not keep the plant any warmer for the winter, just let the buds sit until spring when it would naturally flower anyway.

We use only the naturally occuring temps, there is no protection from cold at all. The pots are sown outdoors in plastic pots. The pots are housed in wooden boxes which are covered with nylon window screen. Suspended above the boxes is a layer of shade cloth. These two layers will break up heavy rain drops and give protection from hail.

If long heavy rains are possible where you live, it would be best to put the pots under cover after some germination has taken place. The outdoor treatments are designed to accomplish germination. For example the plants do not like long soaking rains in late summer and into the fall, so you might have to move the pots to an unheated greenhouse or coldframe once they have sprouted. However a long soaking rain is very beneficial in promoting germination.

The easiest to sprout are: Pediocactus simpsonii, Sclerocactus spinosior, pubispinus, and brevispinus. They will often sprout in early spring when it still freezes a bit at night. They find early spring a very active growth time when it is cool and moist.